ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) is the Space agency of India. The people of ISRO are famous all over the world because of their budget. ISRO executes a very big mission on a very low budget but scientists have worked hard to make the ISRO we are seeing today.
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What is ISRO?
To know what ISRO is, we have to go back to 1962. INCOSPAR (Indian National Committee for Space Research) was established by Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 at the request of Vikram Sarabhai under the Department of Atomic Energy. Then in 1969, its name was changed to ISRO. ISRO became an independent space agency in 1969.
The full name of ISRO is the Indian Space Research Organization which was established in 1969 by Vikram Sarabhai. Vikram Sarabhai is also known as the Founding Father of ISRO. And then APJ Abdul Kalam and many great Indian scientists also contributed to ISRO.
Twelve years before the establishment of ISRO, agencies from other countries carried out several missions. Like sending humans to space, sending humans to the moon. Apart from this, SUPARCO (Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission) of Pakistan was established 8 years before the establishment of ISRO and they also launched one of their rockets.
We know that ISRO was established on 15th August 1659 and at that time poverty was very high in India so the government of India paid more attention to it and because of this scientists working in ISRO were paid very less.
Which is the first mission of ISRO?
India launched its First Satellite with the help of Russia on 19 April 1975, because at that time India did not have a launch vehicle to launch its satellite in space, so India took the help of Russia.
ISRO had its first satellite Aryabhatta delivered to the launch place by cycle and bullock cart as ISRO did not have the budget and means to carry the satellite at that time.
ISRO’s Missions After 1980
Indian Space Research Organization has its own Indian space history from 1980 till now, due to which ISRO is different from other space agencies. ISRO made its own launch vehicle SLV(Satellite Launch Vehicle) in the year 1980 and in 1980 ISRO built Rohini satellite using its own technology and launched its own SLV and the project director of SLV was APJ Abdul Kalam.
In 1998, India sent more than 27 satellites. Then there was the Kargil war between India and Pakistan, then India sought help from America for GPS to see the Pakistan Army base but America did not help India.
ISRO got its GPS project IRNSS approved in 2006. IRNSS (Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System) is an Indian GPS known as NavIC (NAVigation with Indian Constellation). NavIC’s first satellite was launched in 2013. A total of 7 satellites have been launched into space today. The radius of this navigation system is currently limited to a radius of 1,500 km from India.
On 22 October 2008, ISRO sent its first satellite Chandrayaan 1 into lunar orbit. ISRO discovered water on the moon under the Chandrayaan 1 mission.
In addition, ISRO carried out a Mars mission named MOM (Mars Orbiter Mission) on 5 November 2013. India is the first country to undertake a Mars mission in Asia. And ISRO was the first that had carried out the Mars mission in a single turn.
On 15 February 2017, ISRO launched 104 satellites simultaneously and India set a world record in this regard. This record was so far held by Russia, which had launched 37 satellites simultaneously in 2014. Of the 104 satellites, 3 were from India, 96 from the United States, and the rest from Israel, the United Arab Emirates, Kazakhstan, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Germany.
Why ISRO is different from others?
• The budget of ISRO and the possibility of failure of ISRO’s mission is very less.
• In all the missions that ISRO has done so far, the budget of the entire mission is less than the budget of a Hollywood or Bollywood film. For example, the budget of ISRO’s Mars Mission MOM was only Rs 450 crore, which is Rs 125 crore less than the budget of Robot 2.0.
• Also, the budget of Chandrayaan 1 was Rs 386 crore and that of Chandrayaan 2 was Rs 970 crore, which is many times less than other space agency missions.
Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s Upcoming Missions
Today, ISRO has completely changed Indian space history. In the next few years, the world will see the missions of ISRO. These include Chandrayaan 3 to complete the unfinished work of Chandrayaan 2, Gaganyaan mission to send humans to space, Aditya L1 mission to complete incomplete knowledge of the Sun besides RISAT 1, NISAR, Shukrayaan, Lunar Polar Exploration Mission, and Mangalyaan 2.